Status of forestry resources and their industrial development in various continents
In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for wood and wood products. As a major source of raw materials for wood products, the world's forests have also undergone tremendous changes. According to the Global Forest Resources Assessment survey released by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the world's forest area accounts for only 4 billion hectares in 2018. Russia, Brazil, Canada, the United States and China account for 50% of the world's forest area. the above. More than 10 national forests have completely disappeared. The following figures are the trend graphs of the world's forest area from 2010 to 2015 and the distribution trends of global primary biomass productivity trends from 1982 to 2018.
Changes in world forest distribution from 2010 to 2015
Distribution trend of global vegetation primary primary productivity trends from 1982 to 2018
As the world's largest market for wood raw materials, Africa's forest conditions are also facing enormous challenges. Factors such as low national income, lack of policy and imperfect systems have become the key to restricting the development of the timber industry in Africa.
Today, Africa’s rapid population growth and rising prices of energy and essential necessities have exacerbated the further shrinking of forested areas in Africa. Especially in the case of Africa's vigorous development of infrastructure construction, commercial land is further expanded and forest destruction is becoming more and more serious. Under such circumstances, Africa's implementation of sustainable forest management policies is imminent.
02 Asia and the Pacific
As the world's population continues to grow, wood is a necessity for human life, and people's demand for it continues to rise.
As the industrialization process in Asia and the Pacific accelerates, the growing demand for primary raw materials such as wood is likely to result in lower forest cover in these areas. Although the technology of afforestation in Asia and the Pacific is ahead of the rest of the world, due to various environmental conditions, the timber in these areas is still mainly imported from other regions.
03 West Asia and Central Asia
The prospects for forest and forestry development in West Asia and Central Asia are mixed. Income growth and urbanization in some countries mean that forest conditions will improve or remain stable, but for some low-income agriculture-based countries, the prospects for forests and forestry are not optimistic. In countries that are relatively affluent but incomplete, forest degradation will continue.
In general, public investment in these countries does not prioritize forestry, and unfavorable growing conditions limit the development of commodity production. The rapid increase in household income and high population growth rates mean that the region will continue to rely on imports to meet the demand for most wood products. Providing environmental services will continue to be a major function of forestry, particularly in preventing land degradation and desertification, watershed protection and improving urban environments. Promoting integrated management of resources requires improved institutional development, especially at the local level.
With the increasing awareness of environmental protection, forest countries have introduced corresponding policies to protect their forest resources. Europe is far ahead of other countries in this respect.
Therefore, the forestry processing industry in Europe, especially in Western Europe, may continue to lose competitiveness compared to labor-intensive industries in other regions. However, it is still able to maintain its leading position in terms of production technology and so on. In the European region, the gap between Eastern and Western European forests is likely to shrink as the Eastern European economy continues to catch up.
05 North America
In the context of the overall economic downturn in North America, the trend in forestry development depends on the amount of wood and wood products that are required to reverse this situation. In addition, the development of forestry in North America will depend on the increase in uncertainties brought about by climate change. In order to protect forest resources, some countries in North America have implemented policies to deprive large companies of forest land.
At present, North America has increased its investment in some wood plantation, that is, if this wood is an important source of energy for the country's economic development, especially in commercial production, then increase investment in wood plantation. . Although the deprivation of forestry owned by large forestry companies may affect their operations, Canada and the United States will still have fairly stable forest areas. In Mexico, reducing deforestation rates will depend on the pace of transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy, as well as reducing dependence on land as a source of income and employment opportunities. Although the economic vitality of the forest industry may fluctuate or even decline, the importance of forests providing environmental services will be more valued by the public interest.
06 Latin America and the Caribbean
Forests and forestry in Latin America and the Caribbean will be affected by economic diversification processes and changes in land dependence. Central America and the Caribbean have a high population density; increased urbanization will result in some people no longer engaged in agriculture, the rate of deforestation will decline, and some deforested forest land will also be reforested.
However, in South America, although the population density is low, the rate of deforestation is unlikely to decline in the near future. In the face of rising prices of necessities, people have to maintain their production and life by cutting down forests. In some countries where land ownership is not clear, sustainable forest management will continue to face challenges.
There are considerable opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean to benefit from the growing global demand for forest public goods, particularly carbon sequestration and carbon stocks, but to make this possible a reality Policy and institutional framework for the region. Afforestation will increase due to the promotion of private investment and the continued growth in demand for wood and wood products in Asia. However, the increase in the speed of afforestation is not sufficient to offset continued deforestation.